Volume 22, Issue 1, 1999

Calendar, 2
Announcements, 3-5
Network News, 6
Borgatti, Stephen P.
By Laws, 7-10
2000 Sunbelt Conference, 11
Ties and Bonds, 12-18
Wellman, Barry
Thomas Schweizer Remembered: Networks, Cognition and Ethnogrophy, 19-27
White, Douglas R .
Building a Network Theory of Social Capital, 28-51
Lin, Nan
In the past two decades, social capital in its various forms and contexts has emerged as one of the most salient concepts in social sciences. While much excitement has been generated, divergent views, perspectives, and expectations have also raised the serious question : is it a fad or does it have enduring qualities that will herald a new intellectual enterprise? This presentation's purpose is to review social capital as discussed in the literature, identify controversies and debates, consider some critical issues, and propose conceptual and research strategies in building a theory. I will argue that such a theory and the research enterprise must be based on the fundamental understanding that social capital is captured from embedded resources in social networks. Deviations from this understanding in conceptualization and measurement lead to confusion in analyzing causal mechanisms in the macro- and microprocesses. It is precisely these mechanisms and processes, essential for an interactive theory about structure and action, to which social capital promises to make contributions.
Toward Computer-Assisted Qualitative Network Analysis, 52-61
Lonkila, Markku, Harmo, Timo
In this article we outline computer-assisted qualitative network analysis (CAQNA) by introducing a prototype of RELNET, a program developed during our own research project . We conclude by suggesting future directions for CAQNA software development.
Social Capital Research Literature: Analysis of Keyword Content Stucture and the Comparative Contribution of Author Names, 62-84
Meter, Karl M. van
In previously published work on the analysis ofsociological AIDS research literature from 1980 to 1990, based on entries in Sociological Abstracts, I have shown that the evolution of research themes, of authors, and of journals in this domain are quite distinct from each other. Indeed,they each form a separate set of longitudinal network data generated by the same data base. Here, I perform a similar cognitive mapping analysis using all entries in Sociological Abstracts containing the keyword "social capital" and find an overall structure of themes but little coherence and few clear divisions. These results are confirmed by a more traditional crosstabulation of key words, author names and scientific journal titles. I describe the three largest thematic groups -- education, economy and family, respectively -- but not the largest -- "social" -- thematic group which is vast and lacks coherence.
Book Review: Broadbent's Environmental Politics in Japan, 85-87
Stevenson, William B.
Abstracts, 89-128
Miscellaneous, 129-132

Volume 22, Issue 2, 1999

International Management Research and Social Networks, 12-21
Athanassiou, Nicholas
Social networks concepts and methodology have been used increasingly in empirical research published in leading U.S.-based management journals over the past ten years. Yet, use of similar social networks concepts for the study of international management phenomena has lagged this trend, although these concepts offer an untapped opportunity for research that would add considerable insights to our understanding of how multinational corporations are managed.

The purpose of this article is threefold. First, it surveys the management literature to identify and discuss the trends in empirical studies that use social networks concepts and that have been published in leading management journals from 1989 to 1999. Then, within this broader set of articles, the subset that focuses on MNCs is examined. Second, this article briefly discusses how certain key concepts about multinational corporation (MNC) structure and its management can be viewed from a social networks perspective. Third, it summarizes the constructs examined by recent (1982-1996) empirical studies of international strategic management literature. The article then concludes that such constructs can be studied through a social networks lens.
A Core/Periphery Structure in a Corporate Budgeting Process, 22-29
Barsky, Noah P.
Many business organizations have adopted empowerment programs as a means of adapting to rapidly changing competitive environments. This paper examines the nature of ties among managers who participate in the budgeting process at a major apparel manufacturer. This case offers two primary contributions to social network analysis research. First, these data provide a concrete example of a context in which a core-periphery network structure can exist. Second, integrating the network data with ethnographic data to examine the structure of ties among managers is useful to help researchers to better understand the impact of corporate empowerment programs.
Boundedness and Connectivity of Contemporary Families: A Case Study, 30-36
Widmer, Eric D., Farga, Linda-Ann La
We present a rationale for considering significant family units as open lowdensity ego networks rather than as small close-knit groups. Using a case study approach, we show that individuals are likely to have significant family members who are not strongly connected to each other, and whose own significant family members differ. However, based on relationships among parents and children, family networks follow well- known sociometric tendencies such as reciprocity and transitivity of choices. We further underline some implications of our findings for family research.
Normative Versus Instrumental Functions: Evidence of Social Network Differentiation Among Rural Kenyan Men, 37-49
Green, Steven R.
characteristics of rural African men. It might also be observed that the significance of these network attributes for interpreting processes of social change is also understudied in the developing countries. This paper seeks to address both of these shortcomings in the literature by providing a detailed description of the communication networks of one group of rural African men, members of the Luo ethnic group of Kenya's Nyanza Province, and by analyzing the possible implications of these network attributes for social change.
A Genreal Permutation-Based QAP Analysis Approach for Dyadic Data from Multiple Groups, 50-60
Martin, John Levi
The QAP approach has been extended from the analysis of bivariate correlations to multiple regressions, and is assuming the “workhorse” role for social network analysis analogous to that played by the OLS linear regression for non-network analysis. But there are severe limitations to current implementations, namely the restriction to one group at a time, and to linear regressions. Contemporary computing power makes feasible an implementation that has neither of these restrictions. This paper describes the various alternatives to such an implementation, makes public a user-friendly program for linear and non-linear QAP regressions for data that may come from more than one group, and illustrates its use with an example that sheds some light on the dynamics of influence processes in naturally occurring groups.
Non-Parametric Standard Errors and Tests for Network Statistics, 61-70
Snijders, Tom A.B., Borgatti, Stephen P.
Two procedures are proposed for calculating standard errors for network statistics. Both are based on resampling of vertices: the first follows the bootstrap approach, the second the jackknife approach. In addition, we demonstrate how to use these estimated standard errors to compare statistics using an approximate t-test and how statistics can also be compared by another bootstrap approach that is not based on approximate normality.

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